A combination of two or more words is called ( مُرَكَّبُ ). The relationship between them is called ( تَرْكِبُ ).
Compounds are of two types: ( ناَقِصٌ ) incomplete and ( تاَمٌّ ) complete.
An incomplete compound ( مركب ناقص ) is a combination of words from which no information, order or desire is understood. It is an incomplete statement, e.g. ( رَجُلٌ حَسَنٌ ) – a good man; ( كِتاَبٌ رَجُلٌ ) a man’s book.
A complete compound ( مركب تام ) is a combination of words from which some information, command or wish is understood, e.g. ( اَلرَّجُلُ حَسَنٌ ) – The man is good. This statement provides us with the information that the man is good.
( خُذِ اْلكِتاَبَ ) – Take the book. The order of taking the book is understood from this sentence.
( رَبِّ ارْزُقْنِيْ ) – O my Sustainer, grant me sustenance. A request is understood from this statement.
A complete sentence is also called ( جُمْلَةٌ ) or ( كَلاَمٌ ).
Incomplete compounds are of several kinds, e.g. ( مركب تَوْصِفِيٌّ ) , ( مركب إِضاَفِيٌّ ), ( مركب عِدَديٌّ), etc. Here we will discuss ( مركب تَوْصِفِيٌّ ). The other types will be discussed later on, as will complete sentences.
The Adjectival Phrase ( مركب تَوْصِفِيٌّ )
A ( مركب تَوْصِفِيٌّ ) is a compound in which the second word describes the first word, e.g. ( رَجُلٌ صاَلِحٌ ) – a pious man. The word ( صاَلِحٌ ) describes the word ( رَجُلٌ ) with the quality of piety.
The first part of a ( مركب تَوْصِفِيٌّ ) is ( اِسْمُ الذَّاتُ ) – a word that denotes the being of something, living or non-living; while the second part is ( اسم الصفة ). In the above example, the word ( رَجُلٌ ) is ( اِسْمُ الذَّاتُ ) while the word ( صاَلِحٌ ) is ( اسم الصفة ).
The first part of ( مركب توصفي ) is called ( مَوْصُوْفٌ ) – a word that is being describe – while the second part is called the ( صِفَةٌ ) – adjective. In the above example, the word ( رَجُلٌ ) is a ( مَوْصُوْفٌ ) while the word ( صاَلِحٌ ) is a ( صِفَةٌ ).
If the ( مَوْصُوْفٌ ) is indefinite ( نكرة ), the ( معرفة ) will also be ( نكرة ), otherwise it will be ( معرفة ). In the compound ( رَجُلٌ صاَلِحٌ), both parts are ( نكرة ) – indefinite. In the phrase ( الرَّجُل صاَلِحٌ ), both parts are ( معرفة ) – definite.
The same declension ( إِعْراَبُ ) – which will be discussed further in the upcoming lessons – that applies to the ( مَوْصُوْفٌ ) will apply to the ( صِفَةٌ ).
A ( مركب توصفي ) and all other incomplete compounds form part of a sentence.
The above list contains many ( اِسْمُ الذَّاتُ ) and ( اسم الصفة ). By combining them, you can form many compounds of ( مركب توصفي ) – adjectival phrases.