Allah the Almighty addressed him:
– سورة الأعراف –
“Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you: Verily Satan is an open enemy unto you?” They said: “Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers.” Allah said; “Get down, one of you an enemy to the other (Adam, Eve, and Satan etc.) On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment, for a time.” He said: “Therein you shall live and therein you shall die, and from it you shall be brought out (resurrected).” (7:22-25).
Again there are old stories about these events. Al Hafez Ibn Asaker narrated that Allah commanded two angels to remove Adam from His holy proximity. So Gabriel stripped him of the crown on his head, and Michael took the diadem from his forehead. Adam thought that his punishment had been hastened and bowed down crying; “Forgiveness! Forgiveness!” so Allah asked: “Are you running away from Me?” Adam replied, “No, my Lord, but I am shy of You.”
Abdul Rahman Ibn Amru Al – Awza’iy said that Adam spent 100 years in Paradise. In another narration it was said he spent 60 years. Ibn Asaker reported that Adam wept for 60 years for his loss of Paradise and 70 years for his mistake, and he wept for another 70 years when his son was killed. They left Paradise and descended upon the earth. Adam was sad and Eve was crying. Allah accepted their repentance because it was sincere and He told them that the earth would be their realm and origin where they would live and die and whence they would come on the Day of Judgment.
Allah the Almighty recounted this third lesson Adam learned in Paradise:
– سورة طه –
“Indeed We made a covenant with Adam before, but he forgot, and We found on his part no firm will power. Remember when We said to the angels “Prostrate yourselves to Adam.” They prostrated (all) except Iblis, who refused. then We said: “O Adam! verily, this is an enemy to you and to your wife. so let him not get you both out of Paradise, so that you be distressed in misery. Verily, you have (a promise from Us) that you will never be hungry therein nor naked. And you will suffer not from thirst therein nor from the sun’s heat.” then Satan whispered to him, saying “O Adam! Shall I lead you to the Tree of Eternity and to a kingdom that will never waste away?” Then they both ate of that tree, and so their private parts appeared to them, and they began to stick on themselves the leaves from Paradise for their covering. Thus did Adam disobey his Lord, so he went astray. Then his Lord chose him, and turned to him with forgiveness and gave him guidance. Allah said: “Get you down (upon the earth), both of you, together from Paradise, some of you are an enemy to some others. Then if there comes to you guidance from Me, then whoever follows My Guidance shall neither go astray, nor fall into distress and misery. But whosoever turns away from My Reminder (neither believes in this Quran nor acts on its orders etc.). Verily, for him is a life of hardship and We shall raise him up blind on the Day of Resurrection.” He will say: “O my Lord! Why have you raised me up blind, while I had sight before.” Allah will say: “like this, Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.). came unto you, but you disregarded them (you left them, did not think deeply in them, and you turned away from them), and so this Day, you will be neglected in the Hellfire, away from Allah’s Mercy.)” And thus do We requite him who transgresses beyond bounds (commits the great sins and disobeys his Lord (Allah) and believes not in His Messengers, and His revealed Books, like this Quran etc), and believes not in the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc). of his Lord, and the torment of the Hereafter is far more severe and more lasting.” (Chapter 20:115-127)
Commentary: Why Adam and Eve Descended
Some people believe that the reason why mankind does not dwell in Paradise is that Adam was disobedient and that if it had not been for this sin, we could have been there all along. These are naive fictions because when Allah wanted to create Adam, He said to the angels, “I shall make a vicegerent on the earth.” He did not say, “I shall make a vicegerent in Paradise.” Adam’s descent on earth, then, was not due to degradation but rather it was dignified descent. Allah knew that Adam and Eve would eat of the tree and descend to earth. He knew that Satan would rape their innocence. That experience was essential for their life on earth; it was a cornerstone of their vicegerency. It was meant to teach Adam, Eve, and their progeny that it was Satan who had caused them to be expelled from Paradise and that the road to Paradise can only be reached by obedience to Allah and enmity to Satan.
Commentary: Adam’s Free Will
Could it be said that Adam and the rest of mankind were predestined to sin and to be expelled from Paradise and sent to the earth? In fact, this fiction is as naive as the first one. Adam complete free will, and he bore the consequences of his deed. He disobeyed by eating of the forbidden tree, so Allah dismissed him from Paradise. His disobedience does not negate his freedom. On the contrary it is a consequence of it. The truth of the matter is that Allah knew what was going to happen, as He always know the outcome of events before they take place. However Allah does not force things to happen. He grants free will to His human creatures. On that He bases His supreme wisdom in populating the earth, establishing the vicegerents, and so on. Adam understood his 3rd lesson. He knew now in a practical way that Iblis was his enemy, the cause of his losing the blessing of living in Paradise, and the cause of his distress. Adam also understood that Allah punishes disobedience and that the way of Paradise has to be through submission to the will of Allah. And he learned from Allah Almighty to ask for forgiveness. Allah accepted Adam’s repentance and forgave him. He then sent him to the earth as His first messenger.
Encounter Between Adam and Moses (PBUT) – Hadith
Abu Hurairah narrated that the Messenger (alayhis salatu was salam) said: “Adam and Moses argued with each other. Moses said to Adam: ‘Your sin expelled you from Paradise.’ Adam said: ‘ You are Moses whom Allah selected as His messenger and as the one to whom He spoke directly. Yet you blame me for a thing which had already been written in my fate before my Creation?” Allah’s Prophet Muhammad (alayhis salatu was salam) said twice, “So Adam outclassed Moses.” (Sahih Bukhari).
Umar Ibn Al Khattab also narrated that the Prophet Muhammad (alayhis salatu was salam) said: “Moses (alayhis salatu was salam) said: ‘My Lord! May I see Adam who removed us and himself from the Paradise?” So Allah made him see Adam and he said to him: “Are you Adam?” Adam said: “Yes.” And he said “Were you the one in Whom Allah breathed His spirit and before whom He bowed His angels and to whom He taught the names of all things?” Adam answered: “Yes.” So Moses said: “What made you remove us and yourself from Paradise.?” Adam said: “Who are you?” Moses said: “I am Moses.” Adam said: “So you are Moses the prophet of the Children of Israel. Were you the one Allah spoke to directly?” Moses answered “Yes.” Adam said: “Why do you blame me for a matter which Allah had predestined?” So Allah’s Prophet Muhammad (alayhis salatu was salam) said twice. “Adam outclassed Moses.” (Sahih al Bukhari).
Variation of Where Adam, Eve, and Iblis Descended
There are many traditions concerning the place of Adam’s descent upon earth. Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Ibn Abbas said: “Adam descended on land ‘Dihna’ between Mecca and Taif.” Al – Hassan said that Adam descended in India and Eve in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia), Iblis Bodistiman (Iraq), and the serpent in Ashahan (Iran). This last was also reported by Ibn Hatim. Ass’ady related that Adam descended with the Black Stone (a large black stone set into the wall of the ka’ba in Mecca. It is said to have come from Paradise) in India, and he had a handful of the seeds of Paradise. He sow them in India and they grew into the fragrant tree therein. Ibn Umar said that Adam descended on As-Safa and Eve on Al Marwa ( names of two mountains in the vicinity of the sacred house in Mecca. Part of the rites of pilgrimage (hajj) includes pacing between these two hills in commemoration of Hajar’s search for water). This was also reported by Ibn Hatim. Abdul Razzaq reported that Abi Musa Al-shari said that when Allah ordered Adam to descend from Paradise to earth, He taught him the making of everything and provided him with the crops from Paradise.
Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet Muhammad (alayhis salatu was salam) said: “The best of days on which the sun has risen is Friday. One this day Adam was created, and on this day he was descended to earth.” (al Bukhari)
Adam’s Life on Earth
Adam knew he bade farewell to peace and he left Paradise. On earth he had to face conflict and struggle. No sooner had one ended than another began. He also had to toil to sustain himself. He had to protect himself with clothes and weapons and protect his wife and children from the wild beasts.
Above all, he had to struggle with the spirit of evil. Satan, the cause of his expulsion from Paradise, continued to beguile him and his children in an effort to have them thrown into the eternal hellfire. The battle between good and evil is continuous, but those who follow Allah’s guidance and should fear nothing while those who disobey Allah and follow Iblis will be damned along with him.
Adam grasped all of this and with the knowledge of this suffering he started his life on the earth. The only thing that allowed his grief was that he was master of the earth and had to make it yield to him. He was the one who had to perpetuate, cultivate and construct and populate the earth. He was also the one who had to procreate and raise children who would change and improve the world.