First, water is pure and purifies. Water does not relinquish either of these two characteristics (purity and ability to purify) unless:
- Its scent, color or taste is altered as a result of an addition of Najasah (Impurities).
- (Secondly, if) there is an addition of a Tahir (clean, pure) substance that is added to it (water) rendering it to be unrecognized as (pure) water and (therefore) it is no longer correct to give it the term water.
There is to be no distinction made between water of varying amounts or whether the amount of water is greater than two Qullatyn or not. (There is to be no distinction between) water that is moving or stagnant, or water that has been used or unused.
1 This is water that retains its original innate characteristics. Water is pure in and of itself. It can also be used to purify and is therefore acceptable to employ for ritual ablution or ritual bath. This is applicable equally to fresh water, seawater, rain and large or small quantities of water.
2 This is derived from the statement of Rasool ul Allah ( : Sala Allahu ‘alihi wa Salaam): “Water is pure and nothing can make it impure.” Reported by Ahmed, At-Tirmithi, and Abu Dawoud on the authority of Abi Sa‘eed al-Khudri (ra: Radia Allahu ‘anhu).
3 Some of these Tahir additions to water are tealeaves, rosewater and things of that nature.
4 On the authority of Ibn ‘Umar (ra) that Rasool ul Allah ( ) said: “If there is enough water to fill two Qullah (large earthen pots that carry about one hundred Kilograms of water), it can carry no impurity.” Another version of the Hadeeth states: “It does not become unclean.” At-Tirmithi, An-Nisaai, Abu Dawoud, Ibn Majah reported the hadeeth and it is guarded as Saheeh by Al-Hakim. Water, whether less or more (than two Qullah) in quantity is pure as long as no impurity alters its innate characteristics. But, once water experiences a change of color, odor, or taste it immediately becomes impure regardless of its amount or lack of. It is important to note, that if water is less than two Qullah (227 kilograms of water) then mere filth can render it impure even if there is no noticed change in taste, color and or smell. If water is more than two Qullah, it can be judged impure only if one of its three qualities (color, smell, and taste) change.
5 Flowing water is that which is not stagnant.
6 Water is pure and can purify whether it has been used or employed in an act of worship or not as long as its qualities remain intact and it has not been mixed with impurities.
Impurities consist of:
- The excrement and urine of Human beings. Except the urine of a young male child.
- Dog saliva
- Feces and Manure
- Menstrual Blood
- The flesh of swine
Other than these (above mentioned) there is disagreement (amongst the scholars as to there degree of impurity).
The principle (of deeming things impure) is (that all things are in a natural state) of Tahaarah (purity). They remain pure unless they are rendered impure by an authentically known source of unopposed impurity.
Impurities are to be cleansed by being washed. (It is to be washed thoroughly) until there is no trace, color, smell or taste of the impurity remaining.
Shoes are to be cleansed by dragging and wiping them upon the ground. If the Najaasah turns into another material it becomes pure since its original impure nature –which was the source of the impurity- ceases to exist.
That which cannot be washed (due to its physical dimensions i.e. the ground), water is to be poured upon it (in sufficient amounts to purge it of the impurity) or it is to be expunged until no trace of the Najaasah remains. Water is the primary cleansing tool that is to be used when purifying and cleansing. Nothing can be used (by itself) in its place unless there is an explicit permission alluding to this granted from the Lawgiver (Allah SWT).
7 On the authority of Abu as-Samh (ra) that Rasool ul Allah ( ) said: “The urine of a baby girl should be washed off and the urine of a baby boy should have water sprinkled upon (without washing).” Reported by Abu Dawoud and an-Nasa’i and al-Hakim guarded it as Saheeh.
8 On the authority of Abu Huraira (ra) that Rasool ul Allah ( ) said: “If a dog licks from one of your
vessels, be sure to wash it seven times and begin the first wash with soil.” Reported by Muslim.
9 Washing is to be done one time, except for what has become impure from coming in contact with a dog’s saliva. That is to be washed once with soil and seven times with water.
10 Rasool ul Allah ( ) said: “If any of you is to come to the Masjid let him turn over his shoes (to see the bottom of them). If you see impurity drag it on the ground (until the impurity is no longer present).” Reported by Abu Dawoud and is authenticated by Sh. Muhammed Nasir ud Deen al-Albani (rh: Rahimaahu Allah).
11 If it disintegrates or is burned and becomes ash it loses its original physical characteristics of impurity and therefore is different in form and possibly ruling from the original impurity.
12 Wiping and dragging the shoes on the ground is one of these instances.